Learning From Local Wisdom Exchange / Culture To Overcome Climate Change Impacts


Age proved that culture is a set value accomplishments of humankind to sustain life meaningful. Hence, why each culture has characters that are not easy to admire but can be extracted, either the meaning behind each symbol character that is present in his works, whether “tangible” such as architecture, woven crafts and “intangible” such as dances, songs, religious holidays, etc.

However, without understanding each there is a new phenomenon, we tend to contrary examples from the West (read the European and American culture). The question is why we do not deviate from the Eastern culture (read Asia) or even from their own culture of Indonesia? This article tries to revive values of local wisdom through the work of traditional architecture, which has proved its sustainability values.

What else opening the historical evidence in the form of buildings, artifacts and works of the relationship between man and his predecessors is now a reality, there is a real historical continuity. Understanding what culture is continuity from one generation to the next generation will bring men more wise to him being able to put yourself in a broader context and leave damage that this ancient tradition.

Learning from traditional settlement doesn't mean imitate what in the past, but learn how we behave in creating sustainable human settlements. So attitude of life that we have learned to be a mirror of the current context to be developed their ideas in adaptation climate change.

1.         Why Culture Should Be Considered In Climate Change

Until now, climate change has been widely discussed in various seminars and conferences, but the focus is more on energy-saving perspective. But man and society, is really a major factor and the subject of climate change. Cultural and social science plays an important role in addressing the phenomenon of climate change in recent times. This time, we understand that human activities were hectic because? And as we dare to quit creating lifestyle to be able to be adapting to the impacts of climate change impacts.

I assume that individuals and social beings, we are responsible for the environment around where we live. This is linked to cultural traditions, such as spiritual values, lifestyles, technology daily, which we use every day and the information that we use. As individual living creatures that we have personal liability/personal care of Earth creator. Meanwhile, as social beings, we are responsible for the general public other continue continuity/tradition. Researcher in question from the previous generations, generation now and in the next generation.

As the generations in the information age, this time we do pause to make the reflection. Reflections on culture through artifacts, artifact will help us get a framework for combating climate change. This reflection should be based on interpretation system encourage decision-makers, both individually and socially to take measures for the future. Interpretation not only through the passage of time, but the greatness of the traditional values of the past.

In his study, Thompson (2000) says that development in industrialized societies there is a test of success if the economic growth of the city or State. This stimulated the growth of capitalism, which not only encourages us to a global catastrophe, but deprives us of understanding and affinity with nature and social life. Industrial progress, which leads us to the lives of all "instantly" as vehicles to run faster and bottled drinking water, food and beverages and vitamin supplements, as well as air conditioning, led us as human beings and the environment is deteriorating sensitivity to nature. This is because the technology industry has been spoiling us not to use our energies. Almost all types of food can be obtained at the Bank, so that our contact with nature were to be reduced. We no longer spoke of fresh fruits or vegetables, but that we touch is a bottle and tin.

Without us knowing it, we've all been on the natural environment and our social relationships with other people. Growth of urban development in major cities such as giant shopping centers, proven to stimulate the emergence of the gap between rich and poor. The gap is not only happening in town but appeared between countries, this is due to the emergence of global markets. Developed countries must be filed in developing countries, but is wrapped in language political economy so that it is as if the industrial cooperation between countries is a step forward. But really, we unwittingly deceived the people our, through the sale of forest products and agricultural products for the benefit of our exports. So now we have that have felt the impact with game prices are not real. When market prices are not real, are the most disadvantaged poor.

2.      Industrial Revolution Vs Traditional Architecture: The Coming Cultural Machine, The Loss Of Local Wisdom And Contact With Nature

In 1712 Thomas Newcomen invented the steam engine. This discovery is the beginning of the industrial revolution in Europe. This industrialization movement succeeded in creating a society that glorifies machine system capable of creating serial technologies. This affects several architects who created the era of modern architecture, such as Mies van de Rohe, Le Corbusier, Walter Grophius, and Louis Sullivan. Grophius victory with the school Bauhaus was founded in 1919, in Wiemar is regarded as a forerunner of the modern architects of that time. Corbusier is known for its motto " machine for housing ", with his work in Unite France ' d ' housing in 1947. Mies designed House known as courage, transparent glass walls, he always glorify the process of designing with a grid will produce clean design. IIAs famous slogan " better less but better ", and became head of the Bauhaus in 1929. Sullivan is now known as the concept of " form defined functions ". As the father of the construction of the city of Chicago, Sullivan managed to bring the image of a vertical city, city of Chicago to bring back to life after the great fire in 1885, by creating tall buildings (8-12 floors) with a predominance of steel and glass.

The presence of the industry gradually producing a new culture and as if you were to see the old (read traditional) become obsolete. Attitudes that don't want to miss this was little closer to human well-being with technology and keep people from nature. Comfort level human in the metropolitan area slowly led by the rulers of the city to enter the building. An authoritarian capitalist system, as shopping center construction and the change of land use for urban development, the man of the Habitat out of ecosystems, to human beings need air, water and the smell of the Earth (see plant). Modern society is more pampered with the use of a car by close to the entrance and directly in the building / Center / Office is closed but with air conditioning, so I felt comfortable, because it is not hot. But if the building is healthy?

The main problem experienced by the residents of the city is losing contact with nature. Indeed, often in seminars on environmental awareness, the purpose of our discussion focused on the destruction of nature as the product of a neighbourhood close to us. But actually forget that you for human development, and often it goes through the improvement of our environment is also at the expense of the human groups that inhabit. Socio-cultural context is always rest certain geographic and climatic conditions will have blurred, even unconsciously. Reference literature on progress with the establishment of the countries of Europe and America, derived from the books and the Internet world more interesting to emulate. Ranging from the simple meal, how wear architecture.

In the modern era, the design is considered a self-employed activity to the production process, and design is part of a product of economic value. Design the most to the world of art and personal expression, because the impact of labour and machinery of mass production systems. This differs from the concepts of traditional design, where the design is part of an art that has a social dimension, but the design is the art of expressing identity shaped decorations which have a strong cultural significance.

On the basis of the past is always driven by the sense of the activities in the space delimited by elements of the nature and the climate, its form is like the birth, growth and then experienced a stabilization to be transmitted to another generation to become a tradition. Now the situation is very different, already not driven by proprietary in activities compliance requirements construction. Build now is not necessary to produce buildings that are used alone or in groups, but a source of candidates for the users and the effect that was not constructed by the user, but by the originator for the potential user.

Buildings in major cities already can be quickly demolished by an interest based on the value of sales. The theme is very boost is that it is: what you use, what do you eat, where you live, where works and where you are buying. Oneself is now more determined by media advertising by the famous sunset that tells you is how you deserve human being.? The fact is no longer a real experience, but a virtual world that can instill in a person's image, auto including buildings. A new society has grown in urban landscapes in the world and its strength is very powerful as it is controlled by a greedy capitalism and not known non-value adding and the turnover of capital (capital city).

In such circumstances we would return to the situation with the past, unless there is a human or natural disasters that make us all reflect on the meaning of the construction and return to nature through constant awareness. Powerlessness we face reality has clearly demonstrated that our society is shaken by the tsunami disaster in Aceh, on 26 December 2004 that a very large scale that rocked the world still is to find a solution which is well so far.

University as the scientific community should consider local forces as preparation to cooperate with the developer in terms of technology are far superior to us. The construction of a city (building), the building itself. Cities where carry out daily activities must take awareness than I. Understanding of oneself is not clear if it does not distance itself. In this case only from a mirror in which we can trace our origins and how we must dress to show what we are. So we must not forget history. The story of how to build enhance our ability to be more responsive to the direction of the gaze of the past and more creative in the future through the understanding of the ways to build in search of a brilliant idea to become a more glorious work.

If you look at the traditional architecture, our admiration for today is not never end. The domain of traditional architecture presents a significant space with bentukannya an honest person, it is always interesting to understand. form of traditional construction reflects how you can build a visual that can be learned by everyone. Traditional architecture is able to position itself as part of life.

Unfortunately the way of building, materials and standards that are transparent to appear in a work, gradually becoming obsolete and emerging domain of a building sophisticated materials industry and be able to create a more attractive form of architecture. The desire to be well (important) with versatile material modern creates a homogeneous configurations worldwide to the most left a cultural continuity.

3. learn from local wisdom settlements in Borneo Indonesia

In the discussion this time taking a case study of "longhouse" settlements in Borneo. The question is, is there any wisdom of local values that can inspire us to address the issue of climate change? On the other hand, if the traditional settlements have a potential for education on sustainable development of the settlements? And if we can take for necessity in the 21st century? Let's think together.

3.1  Social Conditions

The diversity of geographic space conditions that range from rural residential to the jungle near the coast, forming a social and cultural diversity. Most people trust Dayak are agro-religioso (with the philosophy and religion based on the Kaharingan belief that the universe is divided into 2 parts, top and bottom natural nature.) People seem to live in the world are flanked by the world above and underworld. In the House they live in large families, it is the unity of the world above and the underworld symbolize Mahatala Djata (husband and wife).

Water section below received many external influences, the middle part has received external influences, the intermediate and the more conservative interior, because it is difficult to achieve (an increasingly difficult wooded impassable when the river dries up during the season dry). Thus the inland areas receive the protection of nature, while coastal areas have a higher chance of contact with the outside world.

His parents left a very high sensitivity to the residential area natural. They divided into 4 groups of forest management, namely:
Ø  ”Rima forest”           = who have never logged
Ø  jamih muntuk        = who has never made the field
Ø  jamih mongit         = forest that has been used as field
Ø  padang ilalang       = areas that should not be planted again

3.2  Economic Conditions

livelihood of the community are mostly agriculture, hunting and fishing. Each year leave their villages and live as a single group in the fields of 4 to 6 months until the harvest has been completed. This is how the use of forests by shifting cultivation (open a very small proportion of forests in their housing environment and burning timber harvests for ash as fertiliser). (If fertility has declined, changed the land to allow a longer process of natural recovery experience). If non-agricultural in the woods as well, are planting rice in the marshy soil (soil and mud, clay).

Traditional architecture of Borneo "longhouse".

Characteristic of the traditional House of Borneo:

Always use a build system "stage House" with an average height of 5.2 m. for the purpose of this system of construction stage is for natural ventilation as a place to keep the crop, livestock, hunting and the wood, at the same time to avoid flooding, because most of the Borneo region is an area with a high rainfall. Use roof gable with a pronounced angle.

There is always the terrace (Terrace / balcony) in order to add keprivasian to the occupants of the House.

Building entrance is placed on both sides of the building and always, confronted to the wind tunnel, given the way the House cross ventlation  high and very dense hard producing correctly. There are reasons for the murals Dayak tribe in the walls of the room describing the spirit of the motives of Dragon as a Messenger of God above.

As it passes the time and the era of development, "rumah panjang" also saw the development of the form in 2 parts, the House mother, that is the home and kitchen home zone service (fireplace for cooking). Between the House and the kitchen at home housewives are separated by an open space. This aims to avoid the risk of fire in the House mother (safety).

3.4  Design And Concept Of Sustainability Of Settlements
The concept of sustainable design used in the design of the House based on the traditional settlement of Borneo, was developed from the theory of "environmentally symbiotic housing" by Kazuo Iwamura (2005) are considered to be low impact, health and recreation of high contact with nature. Brief understanding of these three parameters in the following way,

Low impact, the comprehensive protection of the environment (energy savings and a more efficient use of natural resources)
It includes measures to address and minimize the impact on Earth is to use renewable energy provided by the Earth (water, air, Sun, wind, fire).For example, the savings in electrical energy through the use of solar energy and the application of the principles of reduce, reuse and recycle (3R) in the processing of the material used.

Health and recreation, a healthy residential environment with all the comforts (feel secure safe,).
Closely related to the movement of healthy air inside the building is the use of cross ventilation system. Also note the use of construction materials that are not harmful to the health of the occupants of the building and construction workers. Spaces available is good for residents can feel safe and comfortable stay in it.

High Contact, compatibility and harmony with the local environment.
Align the building with the natural ecosystem allows the chain of life in it, i.e. by submitting biotope, both outside and inside of the building.

3.5  Longhouse Settlement Analysis Based On The Theory Of Sustainability

(a)      Low impact, global environmental protection (energy saving & more effective use of natural resources)
structure of the stage House to provide good ventilation which helps the cooling in the House. Many openings to include ventilation and natural lighting. There are various skylights on the roof of which serves to provide natural lighting.
building "longhouse" systems not made use of nails, but uses a system of perforation of penetration and pins. So "long houses" construction could later be reused for sustainable consumption.

(b)      Health & amenity, a healthy residential, environment with amenities ( be safe , feel safe)
Hall and open space that contains each communal house provide an area big and strong as a playground for children. It is intended that children remain in control of the family.
Union between the families in the Dayak community in long houses provide a sense of security in all and each family who lived in the House, with the goal of caring for others.
Building houses on piles up to 2 - 4 m aims to avoid the danger of flooding, according to the geography of Borneo. Each entry is the statue of the God of the guard in accordance with the trust of local residents.
Between the mother's House (homes) and kitchen of the House (service area) is separated by an open space. Its aim is to reduce the risk of fire in the House mother.

(c )       Harmony and contact with the local environment
The system used in housing construction than the always use housing construction. This is respect and treat nature respectfully (no cutting and filling).
Construction materials used almost all derivatives of nature (local Woods) and natural materials which is always a quick update (growth), such as:
1. Wood from local trees (Borneo) are wooden galam, wood Dragon cal, palo fierro, etc.
2. Bamboo
3. Stem leaves of banana as material for roofs

Each “longhouse” (Kelabit) always have a garden that will render well furnished. This is a way of communities Dayak live in harmony with the surrounding nature.

Dayak of agricultural work usually has its own field in village back. When the field was achieved with the navigation.
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