Evaluation system based on a traditional aspect of the energy consumption of Sunda

I. Backgroun
Architectural form of the building and built environment to be able to respond to the needs of the people and raise their life for the better, so it cannot be separated from its cultural development. Architecture is the fruit of the culture of a society continually (Rapoport, 1969).
In a social system, every Member of society will act in accordance with customary law. Rules and customs will affect the image of the environment and architecture. Norma, ADAP, climate, culture, the capacity of locally available materials will affect the architecture of traditional houses related community.
Homes or traditional building which was built for the community in question contains a charge to the person who is able to show physical characteristics.
In Indonesia, traditional buildings, such as described in front of so many, one of which was the traditional building Sudanese in West Java. Traditional buildings in West Java and others still live today or bodrstvuet sustainabilitasnya. The building is sustainabilitasnya structures were tested against environmental factors (climate) and local culture. One indicator of success in maintaining its existence builds energy-efficient or cost-effective.
Sudanese traditional buildings energy after described above is very interesting to explore, both in terms of its own energy use and the relationship with the concept of sustainable development.

II. Sunda traditional building
2.1. Sudanese traditional buildings in General
Traditional architecture culture item that grows and develops together with growth and development of the tribe or nation. Thus, the traditional architecture is one of the cultural identity. On the basis of life, that's enough of a Sudanese Traditional architecture can be grouped into several types of buildings, residential buildings (homes), the construction of places of worship, building consensus, and to store (MOEC Jabar, 1984).
In General, the basic design concept was a Sudanese traditional architecture blends with nature. Nature of the potential or force that must be respected and properly use in everyday life. Expression of respect is reflected in the designation of land for nature, which shows that nature is also home to the Sudanese people land, because the term is also used to denote a fine home or residence of the Sudanese. Traditional buildings in West Java have distinctive features that can be seen in buildings, roof forms, forms/form, and the space structure of the building.
Typical House on stilts are characteristic of traditional buildings in Indonesia. But form a Sudanese traditional stage House at different stages in the form of traditional houses in Indonesia. In General, a scene of traditional houses in Indonesia more than 1 metre in height. Although the stage House in West Java was platform height in average only 40-60 cm of the soil.

There are different typologies of residential buildings sunda:

  • Suhunan JolopongAnother Member of the Suhunan Jalopong is Suhunan length, shape, as shown in Figure 1.

figure 1: Susuhan Jolopong

  • Jogo AnjingJogo Anjing roof form (fig. 2) is a form of the roof, which has two roof adjacent to suhunan highway.
figure 2: Jogo Anjing

  • Badak HeuayBadak heuay roof forms similar to Jogo anjing (Photo 3), the only difference is the rear roof apada that straight up through the barrel suhunan little.
figure 3: Badak Heuay

  • Parahu KumurebRoofs this building consists of four areas of the roof shape of isosceles trapezoid (as shown in Figure 4).
figure 4: Perahu Kumureb

  •  Julang NgapakJulang ngapak intention relationships that extend the impending bird wings. Form roof of this building is the roof, which extends on both sides of the roof (Figure 5).
figure 5: Julang Ngapak

  • Buka PalayuBuka Palayu of the length, which shows the location of the front door of the House to one side of the roof area (fig. 6). Thus, when viewed from the front of the House, clearly visible across the transverse suhunan line from left to right.
figure 6: Buka Palayu

  •  Buka PongpokBuka Pongpok funds for short. Open House sign-House Pongpok which, in the direction parallel to the one end suhunan rod (fig. 7).
figure 7: Buka Pongpok

The most dominant form of home roofing used in Sunda in West Java was a form of suhunan Ngapak Hornbill. The local Bedouins called Najanda Sulah, and some call it the Priangan Jangga Wiranga. But we also recognize the various other forms of roof as a result of the influence of other cultures, such as Javanese culture (Mataram Kingdom), in a House with a roof Jogo ngupuk Dogs, permanent, and Limasan with trends in accordance with the natural environment of West Java. Effects are clearly visible in the northern part of West Java, Sumedang and Majalengka as the boundary between Sudan and Javanese culture (suhunan long and jure) in Indramayu (Limasan).
Traditionally, the Sudanese people built houses of a wooden frame, while preserving the Poles resting stone house, commonly referred to as tatapakan. The materials used to make DOM tree, bamboo, palms, sago leaves Tepus and fibers. Indoor or thatch roofing material that is arranged in such a way that is at the ends and middle of bamboo yarn so that a fragment of a roof is installed, if necessary with the assistance of bamboo or rattan rope fastening rope.

2.2 Sundanese traditional buildings in the village of Pulo
Homes are covered in this study is a traditional building in the village of customs, traditional buildings into Kampung Desa Cangkuang, Poulo, Leles, Garut Regency sub-district. Traditional buildings in Kampung Poulo into categories and Jolopong developed Ngapak Hornbill (fig. 8).

figure 8: Sundanese traditional buildings in the village of Pulo

III. Energy consumption on traditional home
3.1 energy consumption
Traditional energy consumption in buildings is the use of energy to support lighting, penghawaan, comfort inside buildings. In modern buildings, lighting, penghawaan, and comfort inside the building, using electric power, whereas for traditional buildings usually have no electrical power.

a.       Lighting
Lighting during the day in traditional buildings is derived from the natural light during the day by opening Windows, doors, holes in the walls, the gaps that exist in the wall (wall Board, bamboo walls, etc.). Since traditional buildings require lighting level room is big enough (Â ± 250 PA in space can be used to read and write). Both natural light to come in and do not require lighting level of lighting in a small space, lighting is adequate.

b.      Air Circulation
In traditional buildings to get fluid flow of air inside a building acquired through open Windows, doors, holes and cracks in the walls. Air flowing air in the room, which was still a high temperature (fever), because it was jasmine to a cool place, shade (many trees). Penghawaan for traditional buildings without the use of energy (electricity) to run well and comfortably.

c.       Thermal Comfort
Construction of indoor comfort is highly dependent on climatic factors, such as indoor air velocity, ambient temperature, relative humidity, solar radiation, and so on. In modern buildings all climatic factors are using a device that requires power to achieve certain quantities to indoor thermal comfort can be achieved.
In traditional buildings, climatic factors are therefore, intentionally or not, so it can achieve its goal without using electricity.

3.2 factors that support

1.       The natural environment
The natural environment is a factor that supports a minimum of energy consumption in traditional buildings surrounding deciduous trees and green grass, so the air is cool, controlled by wind speed, solar radiation, which can cause the temperature of hot air into the environment can be minimized, shadow, shadow. Geographic location or Java in Indonesia, which has tropical climate allows natural light during the day, got quite a lot (A ± 12 000 Lux, noon clear sky without clouds) so that with a small hole in the wall of the room to be sufficiently notable.

2.      Residential activity
Residential activity in traditional buildings not like modern buildings in energy consumption. Space in the more traditional buildings used for rest or sleep, Cook and eat, for other activities such as attending, chatting, wrote something, and others are doing diteras outside the building. with residential models, such as they are low energy lighting, penghawaan, and so on.

IV. Assessment of energy consumption on traditional building sunda
4.1 Energy consumption by traditional buildings
Energy consumption by traditional buildings that hot, humid tropical climates, such as in West Java, in accordance with Egan (1985), can be very effective when traditional building design means:

  1. Construction of the environment that are still green, many big trees that can function as a filter or barrier to the wind flow.
  2. Overgrown grass lands around buildings and other green plants that can be used to reduce reflection of heat from solar radiation directly into the ground.
  3.  Adequate ventilation in the roof, so that wind can be directed through the roof space (the space between the ceiling and roof).
  4. The floor of the stage, because it allows air to circulate under the floor so well that there is no humidity, and so forth.
  5. The eaves of buildings that can protect the sunlight (which carry heat), so no hot sun directly on the walls of the building.
  6. Jalousie, windows, doors, walls which can allow air to pass through.
  7. Wall light which can prevent thermal radiation daily Sun.
  8. Color and roofing material, which may reflect or absorb solar heat.

4.2 energy consumption in buildings Pulo village

Energy consumption by traditional houses building Kampung Poulo coverage and penghawaan become important again because of the occupation does not require a particular standard and are obviously very efficient use of energy and effective.
For thermal comfort and liveability according to Egan (1985), traditional Kampung House, Poulo was as described, namely:

  • Eco green building left many large trees that can produce and filter air or wind that led to the building.
figure 9: Pulo village home of traditional buildings and environmental conditions
  • Green grass, low plants, while others still have around the House, and it can serve as a reflection of the Sun's heat resistance on the ground.
  • Vent in the roof of the building through the gaps that exist in the stitched bamboo (gedek) on both sides of the roof box-Sophie Sophie or gable end, and the gap between field-Sophie Sophie roofing field.
figure 10: areas of roofs made of woven bamboo (gedek)
  • The floor of the stage in this building as high as ± 60 cm of the ground. It is not closed or opened up to all parties for air to flow freely, and you can remove the moisture in the soil.
figure 11: the stage floor in a traditional building houses Pulo village
  • Teritisan (overhang) building is quite wide, about 1 m and the porch then this section teritisannya be more than 2 m.s cornice like this then the building has not been directly exposed to direct sunlight, as well as insulation of walls and rooms do not overheat the room inside is not hot.
  • Walls, doors and Windows allow air to pass through. The walls of the building are made of stitched bamboo that can be passed to the air, the window always open, and only covered with bamboo lattice, the air can freely enter the room, so that room temperature is hot.
figure 12: doors windows and walls made of woven bamboo
  • Wall of light (as noted above, made of stitched bamboo), which can absorb and prevent heat radiation from the Sun in the day.
  • Hatch in the roof in the form of fibres is very useful for absorbing heat, and thermal radiation from the Sun should be located in space in the building.
figure 13: Pulo village of traditional buildings and surroundings

figure 14: Vertical section showing the buildings of the airflow and ventilation 
through the walls, doors, Windows and the floor of the stage

figure 15: Horizontal parts of the buildings that show the movement of air 
and ventilation through the walls, Windows and roof

Based on the above analysis shows that the traditional Kampung House to achieve placement of Poulo comfort inside buildings and lighting needs, penghawaan, and therefore does not require energy, when energy is needed only at night to illuminate the lamps only.
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