Javanese Traditional Architecture Of Kudus Houses

The first type located on Kudus (a town in central Java) that is famous for the central of Islam proselytization. The society obeys the rule of religion, and most of their means of livelihood are trader and entrepreneur. Religious activities are reflected on the use of mosque facility and yard mutually. These social and cultural aspects influence the daily activity and are reflected on building and environment planning.

The residential area has typical forms:
  • First, it is indicated by mosque and its tower constitutes the central of society activity. 
  • Second, dense Javanese settlement (with or without fence).
The characteristics of interior planning are:
  • Interior of a house consists of living room (“Dalem”) that constitutes the central part of the building, kitchen (“Pawon”), veranda (“Jogosatru”), front yard, service room (well, bathroom) and building annex (“Sisir”). All parts are bounded by wall and wind blows through openings like window, door, and ventilation mesh. The interior arrangement tends to be linear on left and right sides of building and living room in the centre of house has the highest volume. It is good to provide direct and continuous air movement. 
  • The shape of roofs called “limasan” (consist of four aslant stretches), “joglo” (piles of two or three limasan roofs), “atap kampung” (two aslant roofs are connected firmly) and the combination of them are made of roof-tile and have clay carving ornaments on roof top (Figs. 2a and 2b). This shape has a high attic volume (about 2-3 fold of wall area) in order to ward off the sun radiation (indoor insulation). 
  • Ceiling shape follows the shape of oblique roof, which is made of wood to enable air movement and heat lost on roof surface. Ceiling on the central of the room is a thick heap of wood beam (called “tumpang sari” construction) as heat insulator for rooms because high ceiling position evokes higher room volume. 
  • Wind blows on attic that becomes heat insulation. In certain situation, it functions as a place for storing wealth of occupant. 
  • Wall is made of wood and full of carving ornament. That is an artistic appearance, besides its function as wall decoration, this woodcarving has meshes to provide airflow into building. Fig. 3 gives the details of meshed woodcarving type that fulfil building walls. This meshed woodcarving is also used in doors and ventilation mesh under ceiling.
Fig.1: Roof shape of Kudus houses

Fig.2: Front view of buildings with various roofs: “joglo”, “limasan” and “atap kampung”

Fig.3: (a) The use of wood on all building construction (b) the detail of meshed woodcarving on door
and on wall and (c) ventilation mesh
  • Stratified floor: begin with ground yard, and then veranda that made from hardened clay, and main room constitutes a wood scaffold to provide air circulation and remove the humidity of the ground. 
  • Curving and narrow paths between houses provide traffic lane for occupants and airflow course, also resist sun radiation and form a shadow area. 
  • Building orientation facing North-South (influenced by Hindu cosmology). It is a right orientation toward wind direction and deflects the dominant orientation of the sun in East-West. 
  • Kerosene lantern is used for artificial light at night; the use of electricity equipment is very rare except TV and radio. 
  • Javanese houses have yards of the same breadth as the building and planted by various vegetation. (Fig. 4). It functions both as an opening area in front of the house in order to make interaction or relation with society (social activity) and religious activity in family. On the aspect of air movement efficiency, it makes rooms become cool because wind blows into the rooms through the green area. Wind will reach indoor area smoothly, it is beneficial to the living room (living room floor is the highest part in the house and has high volume; its position is right on building axis).

    Layout  Of Traditional Kudus Houses

    Traditional Kudus House not a single building, but the unit that serves some of the buildings for housing and perform daily activities at home. The build system consists of the footprint of the main building, the courtyard and the buildings are complementary. The main building facing the direction South, the position of the buildings in the North of tread. auxiliary buildings generally occupies a position on the site of the South front of the building principal and separated by a courtyard open at the center of the tread. Limit of tread of a high fence of brick. Access to the site through regol on the side or front of tread. Regol in the form of door covered with double leaf doors. Regol often this is the only achievement in tread.

    Fig. 4: (a) Buildings and its environment (b) building appearance and (c) room plan, garden and paths arrangement

    The main building. This is the largest building in the trace. Serves to house the major activities of the occupants in the House, eat, drink, relax and chat with family members. The main building consists of Dalem, Jogosatru and Pawon.

    Dalem. Is the foundation of the main building. Square or rectangular. Dalem consists of Johan on the South side and Sentong on the north side. Sentong consists of three parts, namely Sentong kiwo, Sentong tengen and Sentong tengah or Gedongan. Johan is the total space of the Palace is used for family gatherings, which Paul prifat. In this room there are base columns Dalem called Soko teachers with intercropping on the top. Johann Paul Wood (tree geladag) with Pale floor rises up to 50 cm space and Pawon Jogosatru. Sentong bedroom inhabitants. Tengen Sentong used for bedrooms for parents and daughters bedrooms sentong kiwo. Sentong tengah in their daily prayers, used to empty space. In the middle of the wedding Sentong be used as a bridal chamber. Sentong medium is slightly Pale floor raised from Jogan. So Sentong tengah or high Gedongan is room almost all the existing space. In third place sentong directly related Jogan, while Jogan Jogosatru associated with the door in the form of butterfly fight Dalem and sometimes with Pawon through a single door or sliding doors. high in the Palace Peil led to it requires a stool or bancik. Spaces are limited Dalem wall of wood without Windows, if the window size and contained in ketch Jogan. Ornamentation of Dalem mainly on pillars and walls (gebyog) sentong. Dalem roofing primarily used Joglo roof roof high angle roof at brunjung or pencu is called.

     Fig. 5: Jogosatru with dalem door

     Fig. 6: Dalem with Sentong Tengah
    Jogosatru. Located on the front of Dalem, limited to gebyog Dalem. Rectangular shape with a length equal to Dalem. Jogosatru be used as space for receiving official visitors. Jogosatru be adjacent to Pawon front. Relationship with Dalem through the main door Dalem, while relations with Pawon through one door or sliding door. Jogosatru as the living room is on the street, the central courtyard. Link to this page in 3 parts, namely: main door in the center of the fighting and in the form of a butterfly clip door on the right side and left the main doors. the door clamps are placed two, on the outside of the sliding with paths of wooden doors and in the interior with sliding walls. One pole in space Jogosatru, which supports a large belandar on it. Single pole position in front of the Palace door slightly offset to the left. Show the most luxurious space among other spaces Jogosatru. Based on a special floor tiles. Ornamentation meet Dalem gebyog, elements such as doors space Dalem, of a single pole, bancik improve the luxury of room. Configuration of an elongated piece of furniture of the room is typically in the form of two sets of chairs that the men separate rooms and evaluation, women. To confirm the separation and then used the backdrop of a line of a single pole is located. Peil floor Jogosatru went up as high as 15 to 45 cm from the courtyard. To get there given the steps along the front of the House. roof Jogosatru way to slant the roof (grilled Pe) which is sosoran (extension) of the Palace of the corners of the roof pananggap humiliated again.

    Pawon. Space for the active family activities. Rectangular side close to Jogosatru and Dalem. Pawon rear is used for cooking or the kitchen, at the head of a place to eat and pick up the family. Sometimes clients already familiar accepted Pawon. Bagiantengah sealing Pawon are sometimes also to increase bed space. Pawon associated with Jogosatru, Dalem and each page through a single door. The door to the silver page two as the clamps of the door of Jogosatru only of smaller size. Pawon roof using a roof kampong gajah ngombe. Sections side-by-side with the people of Dalem roof, while next to its roof Jogosatru Jogosatru an extension of the cover.

    Fig. 7: Pawon functioned as a kitchen dining room
    Fig. 8: Sisir and bathroom in front jogosatru

    The building Houses an additional complement traditional houses of the Kudus wells and bathrooms and comb. These additional buildings extended close to parties outside the main building footprint. Auxiliary buildings used to House serfis and economic activity or the production of the occupiers.

    Wells and bathroom. Whether the completeness of the main building, which is used for bathing, washing and berwudlu. The situation also and bathroom is located in front of courtyard-based. The well is located in free space, the brick wall of wells Bong reaches 90 cm (waist-adult). Around the well hardened plaster andesite stone slabs or washing activities. To close the well fenced pageviews of the walls reaches about 150 cm (high neck of adults). The bathroom is adjacent to Wells, consisting of two shower directly connected with the good. Bath each camera connected, there is a hopper which opens towards the filling with water. Panggang pe covered bathroom.

    Sisir. There is an elongated building next to the bathroom. In the first form of the sisir of elongated cells with no partitions. Function room, multipurpose comb or sisir, as the storage location is determined by the work of many people in space. Sometimes the comb is used to purchase the House next to the road. Ridge roofs of the village. In certain events such as weddings and circumcision which includes a lot of people, a building Ridge turned into soup kitchen.

    Yard. This is an open space or courtyard in the traditional Kudus House. This page has been merubpakan an important role. The binding of the function times the surrounding buildings. Hospitality of regol and pointed it at the Palace. Use this page to outside activities, as well as the connection between the period. The shade of the trees planted for shade. Overlay page sometimes closed gravel so as not to tarnish. In some houses of parallel meetings, home page or continuous interlinked to form a road or tunnel through the tread. Separation of main building and ancillary buildings. When large events are taking place in the living room.

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  1. its great pleasure indeed to read your blog..its amazing and i was fascinated, i wish you can provide me a hard copy of this write up...if you can!thank you


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