Bioclimatic Architecture

Bioclimatic Architecture
A. Bioclimatic Architecture 
understanding architecture: the national encyclopedia of Indonesia, "architecture is the science and the art of designing buildings, a collection of buildings and other structures are functionally well structured and has aesthetic values" (national encyclopedia of Indonesia, 1990).

Understand Bioclimatic: Taken foreign language BioclimatologĂ­a. According to Ken Yeang among many others, "BioclimatologĂ­a is the study of the relationship between climate and life, particularly the effect of climate on health and living activity ' ' meaning: the science that studies the relationship between climate and life, especially the effects of climate change on the health and activity every day." Bioclimatic buildings: Buildings that form the building prepared for design use of energy-efficient techniques related to the local climate and data meteorolgi, the result is a building that interact with the environment, in the incarnation and operations, as well as high-quality appearance. (Kenneth Yeang among many others in 1996).

Understand Bioclimatic architecture: Art of designing buildings with the method of energy efficiency that takes into account the local climate and the problem of climate change through the application to the construction elements. 

B. Development of architecture 
development architecture Bioclimatic originated from the 1960s. Bioclimatic architecture of modern architecture that have influenced climate oIeh. The architecture reflects back Frank Lloyd Wright architecture Bioclimatic is famous for its architecture, connected with nature and the environment with its fundamental principles in the art building that not only ignore the efesiensinya, but also peace, harmony, wisdom, strength building and activities are consistent with the building ", Oscar Niemever with the philosophy of architecture that is objectively penvesuaian against nature and the environment, functional mastery, and maturity in handling and choice of forms, materials and structures. Finally, from Frank Lloyd Wright and Oscar Niemever Iahirlah Olgay architect Jan such as Victor in 1963 began to introduce architecture Bioclimatic. After 1990 Kenneth Yeang start implement architecture Bioclimatic in high rise buildings which won awards Bioclimatic Aga Khan Award in 1996 and ARCASIA award in 1996. 

C. Architectural Design Principles Bioclimatic 
Factors that influence the architecture Bioclimatic:
  1. Appearances affect the local environment architecture. 
  2. Reducing dependence on energy sources that can not be updated. 
  3. Energy savings in the form of buildings, building placement, and material selection.
  4.  Following the influence of local culture. 
Things that should be considered in designing the building with the theme Bioclimatic in climate control strategies. 
  • Take advantage of the sun. 
  • Minimizing the flow of heat treatment. 
  • Minimizing the area enlargement of openings to the sun. 
  • Paying attention ventilation.
  •  Given the account of evaporation, cooling, roofing system. 
D. Elements Of Architectural Design Bioclimatic
1. Vertical Circulation 
  • Consists of stairs, escalators, elevators, dumb waiters, all components are located in the kernel. 
  • Vertical circulation functions: 
    • Structural rigidity. 
    • Sun protection.
    • Wind protector. 
    • Emergency stop ozone.
    •  Relationship between every floor. 
  • Core placement in buildings must be on the side of the building Bioclimatic (core pheriphery). For the climate like in Indonesia tropls that have many advantages: 
    • There is no need for ducting fire-fighting presuration.
    • It can be seen exiting the building through the elevator lobby. 
    • Can include natural ventilation and natural lighting in the core space.
    • Core can serve as sun protection.
2. Vertical Landscaping 
  • Profits: 
    • The aesthetic value to users of the building and to produce high performance work.
    • Extenuated building facade. 
    • Protecting internal and external walls of buildings.
    • Minimization of thermal radiation reflected sunlight and glass in the building. 
    • Absorb CO2 and co from air pollution and ensuring O2 during photosynthesis. 
    • Obscure view and absorb sound, particularly at skycourt.
3. Ventilation 
The use of ventilation in buildings Bioclimatic prefer natural ventilation, especially in the lobby, elevators, stairs and toilet area.
  • The advantage of natural ventilation are: 
    • For added comfort periods of high humidity.
    • For health reasons, to provide enough oxygen. 
    • For convenience Iebih good vision on building occupants.
    • For energy conservation by reducing and eliminating mechanical ventilation.
4. External Wall Building
Order of desain external building
  • Energy efficiency means that the skin of the building must be able to reduce energy consumption. Provision of central daylight to reduce the direct solar radiation.
  • Minimize air penetration and condensation.
  • Provision finishing texture and color selection.
  • Equipped with automatic window cleaning equipment.
  • Can accommodate building movement.
  • Minimizing the load on the frame structure.
  • Minimize equipment maintenance.

5. System Structure 
Usage Bioclimatic structure depends on each floor of high system usage and size of the vertical structure of layout elements consists of the core elements of service and the column and also influenced olen structural requirements to resist dead load, wind and earthquakes and stiffness system. building. This structure can also be combined with low energy system.

6. Mechanical and Energy
M & E systems including air conditioning, ventilation, heating systems, water supply, electricity and lighting, telecommunications, sewage, sanitation systems, computer systems, security systems and intelligent building systems. The main purpose of buildings is to reduce dependence using Bioclimatic building on M & E systems and buildings to reduce energy use through low-energy system is passive. 
  • M & E Design of building Bioclimatic: 
    • M & E must be economical to construct and operate, effective and minimize energy consumption in construction and for the survival of the building. 
    • M & E must be a high level of employment, high comfort, acoustics and lighting. 
    • M & E should minimize maintenance costs and repairs using quality materials. 
    • M & E should maximize the use of space by reducing equipment and maximum structural efficiency. 
    • M & E should draw attention to the environment by choosing Setup, no noise, no pollution, uses CFCS and reduce CO2 production materials.
E. Wind and intermittent aeration room 
Air movement produces the best because with soft drinks occurs to lower the temperature of the evaporation process in human skin. Thus, the wind can also be used to set the room air.

The wind that affected an area of high pressure building is menbentuk on the side of upstream from the wind. On the basis of the facts surrounding the building and the wind blows menbentuk low pressure in the side area and downstream from the wind side. Noting that air flow is not always find the shortest path.

different pressure conditions on both sides of the inlet air flow, diverting the wind will find another way. Means shifts the air inlet at one side to alter the conditions of each pressure. In addition to moving the air flow, thus also affecting olen ray of sunlight that also need attention. We suggest that avoided the glare of the plant. 

In a non-story house, moving air stream at an altitude of the human body. Thus also occur in a high rise building on the first floor, while upstairs room in the building air flow rate to move closer to the ceiling. 

Influence of shading elements result in different conditions of pressure on both sides of the entrance of air. The location of the air always affect the airflow, and location of the outlet is not so important.

Affect the airflow velocity soaps. If the air more than the slit, the air speed will be reduced, otherwise if more land-air, air speed will become strong. 

The use of trees and shrubs is a natural way to provide protection against the light of the Sun and cool off and channel the flow of air, especially in low buildings. update of the indoor air, apart from relying on the movement of air, also in the exchange of air. The tropical region is closely related to health is quite high.
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